Scientific urgency of the project
In the most widespread traditional methods of processing of organic and inorganic
materials in products, various catalysts and solvents and long technological operations of
heating are used for transferring of material into plastic or hyperelastic conditions and with its subsequent cooling. Thus the basic difficulties connected to non-uniform existential distribution of temperature emerge, and the duration of these operations limits the general productivity of the processing equipment. Therefore the creation of new alternative technologies on manufacture of polymeric and ceramic products with traditional applications is important as well as the creation of new technologies of products which cannot be made in the traditional ways of material processing.
In this connection the developments of non-polluting and resource-saving technological processes of solid-phase technologies which are deprived the set forth above lacks are rather important. In essence, the topic under discussion is the development of new
solid-phase chemical technologies aimed at the reception of various metal and nonmetallic alloys, at the reception of copolymers of incompatible monomers, of polymeric and ceramic products. The practical supplements of these technological processes are connected also with the reception of functionally gradient materials, alloys, ceramic and composite materials,
especially clean chemical compounds, nanomaterials, etc. These technologies are very perspective and they are named as the technologies of XXI century. The big contribution to the creation and development of these technologies was made by the scientists working at the Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Problems of Materiology (ISMPM) of the Science
Centre of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) in Tchernogolovka and by the scientists working at Tambov State Technical University (TSTU). For example, the first-ever automated (with the robot in shop of synthesis) manufacture of ceramic powders has been started which is based on the technology of the high-temperature self-spreading synthesis (HTSS) developed in ISMPM. In TSTU together with the joint-stock company "Tambov Chemical Scientific-Research Institute" and the joint-stock company – the factory “Progress” in Michurinsk the technology of firm pyrochemical sources of oxygen with the adjustable speed of target gas allocation with reference to the creation of independent devices for lungs artificial ventilation has been developed.
Examples of solid-phase technologies are method HTSS-extrusion (ISMPM) combining the processes of burning and high-temperature deformation of burning products and solid-phase extrusion of polymeric and composite materials (TSTU). The general feature of these methods is the use of processes of plastic deformation of firm materials. Now it is still difficult to predict the scales of practical application and prospects of solid-phase methods for products reception of organic and inorganic materials. Taking into account the advantage of these methods and results of the researches carried out before, it is possible to say, that
these methods have all the preconditions for an effective utilization in the industry. This conclusion is also confirmed with the practical application experience of some products received by the methods of solid-phase technology: HTSS-ELECTRODES for welding deposition and electrospark alloying out of wolframfree firm alloys, high-temperature heating elements,
products from firm alloys with the use of grinding waste products, stamped products of radio engineering purpose out of polytetrafluoroethylene having the elements of a snowmobile drive and other products.
The information received at research of solid-phase technology laws of organic and inorganic materials has fundamental character. It promotes the development of physics representations about plastic deformation mechanisms of firm materials that is now the subject of our detailed studying and abroad by virtue of its theoretical and applied value. However, despite of the great volume of the researches executed in the given direction, the full clearness in the treatment of these processes has not been achieved still. The practical value of the received knowledge about solid-phase deformation and the directed regulation of material properties by the creation of new special composite alloys is caused by the development of technological processes of new product reception and by the equipment introduced into industrial production.
The scientific purpose of the project:
Performance of the project will allow:
- Development of physics and science of materials and rheological management principles of microstructure formation of ceramic and composite polymeric materials at their deformation in conditions of solid-phase extrusion.
- Research of an opportunity of nanocrystal material reception by the method of solid-phase extrusion.
Influence on development of adjacent areas of a science
- to create the new scientific theory of structurization and high-temperature deformations of the organic and inorganic materials, including rheodynamics, non-stationary transportation and phase transformations;
- to create scientific bases of solid-phase extrusion methods for reception of products out of refractory connections, ceramic composite materials, firm alloys, polymers and other materials.
Studying of various fundamental aspects of structurization and deformation of the ceramic and composite materials received by the methods of solid-phase extrusion demands interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge in various areas of science: rheology, structural mechanics, modern materiology, chemical kinetics, etc. Basic distinctions in mechanisms and dynamics of structurization at solid-phase extrusion puts new tasks in the field of physics materiology. In this connection it is required to study formation laws of deformation structure and anisotropic structures in various conditions of deformation in a combination to high static or dynamic pressure.
The fundamental importance of the project
As it is known, powders of refractory connections are fragile and hardly-deformed. The absence of plasticity both at room, and at the raised temperatures sharply limits also the
technological receptions of manufacturing from them products. The increase of plasticity of these materials is possible probably due to their transition into the superplastic condition. A necessary condition of the transition in the superplastic condition is the presence of a stable microstructure with the submicronic sizes of grains. Traditional ceramic materials usually have the sizes of grains equal to 1-10 microns. The important fundamental problem is the development of physics and chemical principles of structurization management in ceramics during its synthesis with the purpose of submicronic structure reception.
By the end of 2008 it is stipulated:
By the end of 2009 it is stipulated to solve the questions of innovative components of the project.
- experimental and theoretical researches of the mechanism of intensive plastic deformation of polymers and composites under a high pressure;
- studying laws of structural updating polymeric alloys and composites in conditions solid-phase screw extrusion;
- studying the mechanism of plastic deformation in conditions equal channel angular extrusion; an experimental research of processes of plastic deformation in a mode equal channel multiangular extrusion polymers and composites;
- studying laws of physics and chemical properties change of polymeric and firm alloys after HTSS - extrusion, solid-phase extrusion and volumetric punching;
- computer modelling of polymeric alloy structure possessing the effect of superplasticity;
- comparison of theoretical representations and experimental results of studying solid-phase technologies: HTSS - extrusion, solid-phase extrusion polymers and development of the proved practical recommendations and technological modes of composite material reception and finished articles with the raised operational characteristics.
It is necessary to emphasize the role of profile Scientific and Educational Center (SEC) in the university scientific - innovative complex. The basic requirements to SEC administration at the performance of scientific and educational activity are:
- preparation of offers on the mechanism of integration of scientific and educational process in the field of innovative activity; ,/li>
- improvement of quality and management efficiency of research and development for their commercialization;
- revealing and the analysis of the factors determining efficiency of participation of young scientists, post-graduate students and students in the researches connected to innovative development of a science and techniques;
- preparation of offers on the integration mechanism of administrative structure SEC into the structure of base university.
Results of scientific and educational activity of SEC of TSTU - ISМPM of the Russian Academy of Science will be used for the creation of modern system of preparation of young experts of all qualifying levels combining a deep professional knowledge and capable to solve problems in the field of innovative activity and management at a high level. In particular, these results are necessary for the improvement of quality and management efficiency of research and development of professional higher education programs in the frameworks of SEC of TSTU - ISМPM of the Russian Academy of Science.